Monday, December 15, 2014

376. Confucius Institute and Benjamin Franklin's Junto

The Confucius Institutes, non profit organization that promotes Chinese language and culture,  are all over the world today. People may wonder who started the first Confucius Institute in the world. No one is qualified to make the statement that he created the first Confucius institute but Benjamin Franklin, one of the great admirers of Confucius throughout the history.

Franklin founded his Confucius Institute, Junto, in 1727 after returning from England. Most scholars believe that Junto comes from a mistaken use of the Spanish noun “junta,” which means “a meeting.” This word derives from the Latin “iunct,” which means “to join.” However, I do not believe Franklin would commit such an error, since in his leisure moments, Franklin taught himself Spanish and Latin, as well as other languages.

Instead, interestingly enough, Junto (君道) in Chinese translates to the “Way of a Gentleman” or the “Path Leading to a Virtuous Person.” This seems like a more likely interpretation of the name, especially since Franklin hoped to use his establishment to cultivate more virtuous members of society. For more information, one can read Benjamin Franklin’s autobiography, now available online.

Through Dr. Dave Wang's research, we see that Franklin avidly promoted Confucian moral philosophy to the American colonies. For instance, in 1737, Franklin published chapters from The Morals of Confucius in his widely circulated The Pennsylvania Gazette. A decade later, Franklin told George Whitefield that Confucian moral philosophy belonged to all human beings. It is evident that Franklin held Confucian philosophies in high regard. He regarded Confucius as his example. Since Franklin's statement is very significant I will quote in the following:

"I am glad to hear that you have frequent opportunities of preaching among the great. If you can gain them to a good and exemplary life, wonderful changes will follow in the manners of the lower ranks; for, ad Exemplum Regis, &c. On this principle Confucius, the famous eastern reformer, proceeded. When he saw his country sunk in vice, and wickedness of all kinds triumphant, he applied himself first to the grandees; and having by his doctrine won them to the cause of virtue, the commons followed in multitudes. The mode has a wonderful influence on mankind; and there are numbers that perhaps fear less the being in Hell, than out of the fashion! Our more western reformations began with the ignorant mob; and when numbers of them were gained, interest and party-views drew in the wise and great. Where both methods can be used, reformations are like to be more speedy. O that some method could be found to make them lasting! He that shall discover that, will, in my opinion, deserve more, ten thousand times, than the inventor of the longtitude." 

Finally, I should make it clear that Franklin's Junto aimed to improve its members' virtues following Confucian moral philosophy. In this point, Junto is different from contemporary Confucius institutes.  

Sunday, November 23, 2014

374. American Exceptionalism, the Founders and Confucian Moral Philosophy

Usually, American exceptionalism can be traced to Alexis De Tocqueville, the first writer to describe the country as "exceptional" in 1831 and 1840. American exceptionalism is the theory that the United States is qualitatively different from other nations.

Actually, the notion that the United States is a different country is older than that. The founders of the United States worked hard to make the United States a new nation on the earth. Thomas Paine in this widely read Common Sense expressed for the first time the belief that American was not just an extension of Europe but a new land. From In his paper Confucius in the American Founding (Virginia Review of Asian Studies, vol. 16, 2014), Dr. Dave Wang states that the American Revolution was also simultaneously a moral revolution. While the founders were concerned with preserving their civil liberties and economic freedom through their stance, “no taxation without representation,” they were also concerned with public morality. They fully understood that the war was as much a battle against “the corruption of 18th century British high society” as it was against financial oppression. As a result, the founding fathers were determined to construct new virtues responding to the needs of the new nation. Having seen the results of the moral corruption in the old world, the founders worked diligently to use all valuable moral resources available for them to create virtues for the new nation.

As the main designers of the new nation, the founders knew that it took more than a perfect plan of government to preserve liberty. They needed some moral principles accepted by the people to encourage them to obey laws voluntarily. They recognized that a free government should be supported by people who could act morally without compulsion, and would not willfully violate the rights of others. Benjamin Franklin firmly believed that "Laws without morals are in vain." Cultivating new virtues for the fledgling United States therefore became one of the most significant themes during this time of social and political transformation. Thomas Jefferson believed the United States was founded on the confidence of a free and virtuous people. Jefferson sought a radical break from the traditional European morality. He opposed the system of the ruling family over the needs of the people. With this notion in mind, the founders turned to Confucian moral philosophy. These efforts to build new virtue for the new nation laid the intellectual foundations for the Revolutionary concept of American exceptionalism.

Saturday, November 15, 2014

373. The Enlightenment, the United States and China

The founders of the United States were intellectually men of the age of the Enlightenment. One of the most important features of the Enlightenment was that Chinese civilization, particularly Confucius moral philosophy, was highly regarded by main frontrunners of the Enlightenment. Confucius’ principle of that the people possess the power of overthrowing a governor who exploits people was accepted as one of the universal principles in human affairs. The direct influence of this principle is manifestly evident in the Declaration of Independence.

It shouldn’t be regarded as coincidence that he principal writer of it, Thomas Jefferson, was made out of the Enlightenment. Traditional nations have their own ethnic traditions. However, the founders of United States were reluctant to carry across the Atlantic the virtue of their old country. The founders believed the moral corruption in Europe should be excluded from the New Nation. Therefore, they were determined to create new virtue for the new nation. In their eyes, creation of new virtue was so important that its success or not would regulate the future of the direction of the nation they created.

If you want to know more about how Confucian moral philosophy made its mark on the founding of the United States,  I recommend you to read Dr. Dave Wang’s article, CONFUCIUS IN THE AMERICAN FOUNDING: THE FOUNDERS’ EFFORTS TO USE CONFUCIAN MORAL PHILOSOPHY IN THEIR ENDEAVOR TO CREATE NEW VIRTUE FOR THE NEW NATION, in Virginia Review of Asian Studies, Volume 16 (2014). In order to understand fully the United States history, the founders’ efforts to draw positive elements from Chinese civilization should be examined carefully. Their efforts shouldn’t be buried in the piles of historical documents that describe that the United States was formed mainly based on the English heritage and the Christian and Greco-Roman traditions. Today all the nations of the world are in one process of modernization. The founders’ way of dealing with other civilizations has provided a great model for all the nations in the world. The founders’ ideas that learn from other civilizations should be adopted by all mankind.

Saturday, November 8, 2014

372. American Civilization, European Civilization and Chinese Civilization

It is well-known that "for much of their history, Americans defined their society in opposition to Europe." "America, it was argued, was a distinct civilization." George Washington had believed that “the new nation would develop a unique American character.” Thomas Jefferson alleged American civilization “was the part of a form of civilization higher than the polished societies of Europe.” US cultures have evolved and absorbed elements from other cultures in the historic process of the formation of American civilization. American civilization drew positive elements from other major civilizations of the world, including Chinese civilization.

In contemporary society, American political leaders have also clearly realized the influence of Chinese civilization on the development of American civilization. President Barack Obama made it clear that “Americans know the richness of China's history because it helped to shape the world and it helped to shape America. We know the talent of the Chinese people because they have helped to create this great country." (-Barack Obama in his remarks at U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue on July 27, 2009) Former President William Jefferson Bill Clinton pointed out that China as “a stronghold of creativity, knowledge and wealth” had an impact on American life long before the United States was even born. He told Americans that “From the printing China invented to the poetry it produced, from medicine and mathematics to the magnetic compass and humanistic philosophies, many of China’s earliest gifts still enrich our lives today.”

The founding fathers of the United States were among the main weavers of the fiber of American civilization. Benjamin Franklin, George Washington and Thomas Jefferson had positive attitudes towards Chinese civilization and worked hard to borrow from it in their efforts to make a new and flourishing society in North America. For example, Benjamin Franklin studied and promoted Confucian Moral philosophy in his effort to cultivate his own virtue as well as to encourage Americans to do the same. George Washington personally supported the opening of trade with China. He also conducted an experiment to grow Chinese flowers in his garden. Thomas Jefferson incorporated Chinese architectural elements into his own buildings in Monticello.

Saturday, November 1, 2014

371. Poor Richard Meets Confucius, and the True Story of the Franklin Stove

This title is borrowed from Dr. John Ruff’s speech in China. I was deeply impressed by Dr. Ruff candid and clear statement, “I first became aware of the Chinese influence on American founders through the writings of Dave Wang, an independent scholar living in New York who writes extensively on the subject.” Dr. Ruff’s testimony serves as another important indicator of showing the academic impact of Dr. Dave Wang’s research on American scholars and professors. Dr. John Ruff, a professor of Valparaiso University, delivered his speech at Chinese Zhejiang University of Technology in Hangzhou on June 7, 2013. According to the University’s webpage, Dr. Ruff talked the following in his speech: Introduced Poor Richard, a character from Benjamin Franklin’s Almanac, and showed some passages from Franklin’s The Way to Wealth. He also told the true story of the Franklin Stove and its link to China.

In his speech, Professor Ruff connected Franklin to Confucius, and Confucius’ influence on Franklin’s life and happiness. He also introduced Franklin’s 13 virtues and Franklin’s efforts for achieving them. Dr. Ruff served as Director of the Valparaiso University First Year Core Program. He was former assistant dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Valparaiso and presently vice-chair of the Faculty Senate. Ruff has a keen interest in ancient and contemporary Chinese culture. He has made several presentations at academic conferences on the Eastern and Western thoughts. In 2012, Dr. Ruff, earned the Valparaiso University Alumni Association Excellence in Teaching Award. In the spring of 2013 he delivered a lecture on Chinese cultural influence on Benjamin Franklin at Ansal University in Delhi, India.

Sunday, October 19, 2014

370. Top Ten Popular Posts as of October 2014

01.244. Whose Military Strategies Should the US in Afghanistan follow: Sun Tzu or Clausewitz? (posted on November 19, 2011)
02. 100. George Washington and the Empress of China (posted on October 22, 2008,)
03. 299. Benjamin Franklin and Ginseng (posted on February 24, 2013).
04. 241. Why Americans Don't Seek Aristocratic Titles and Honors (posted on Oct 30, 2011).
05. 302. What differentiates Chinese from Americans? (posted on April 9, 2013).
06. 116. China Trade in New England, 1800s (posted on November 27, 2008).
07. 297. Ginseng, Tea and the American Revolution (posted on February 7, 2013)
08. 259. Ginseng and the Founding Fathers (posted on April 28, 2012).
09. 215. Chinese Influence on American Culture (posted on March 29, 2011)
10. 307. The Ten Most Popular Posts in this Weblog (posted on May 1, 2013).

Readers of this blog will find that the five posts found in 2013 remain in the top ten popular list, including 100 (Ranking No. 4 in 2013), 299 (Ranking No. 2 in 2013), 241 (Ranking No. 7 in 2013), 297 (Ranking No. 1 in 2013) and 215 (Ranking No. 3 in 2013) 

Sunday, October 12, 2014

369. The Reason North America's Ex-Colonies Did So Much Better

In his well-known book, Civilization: The West and the Rest, Dr. Niall Ferguson stated, "The reason North America's ex-colonies did so much better than South America's was because British settlers established a completely different system of property rights and political representation in the North from those built by Spaniards and Portuguese in the South." (His above book, p.14) Dr. Ferguson tries to answer the big question, why in recent 500 years the West civilization prevailed in the world. Many scholars have tried to provide their convincing answers to the question.

I don’t have desire to make an attempt to formulate an authoritative answer to it. However, I want to add my small findings to the answer, probably ignored by Dr. Ferguson in his efforts to create his compelling respond to the question. I believe that Chinese factor was one of the main factors that responsible for the different results of the two Americas’ ex-colonies.

From reading this blog and Dr. Dave Wang’s publications on the founders and Chinese civilization, a reader should learn that the founders made their consistent efforts to borrow positive elements from Chinese civilization in their undertaking to build a new nation in North America. Chinese civilization served as a positive force helping colonies’ growth from their formation to the early period of the republic. For example, Benjamin Franklin recommended using the Great Wall of China to safeguard the newly founded United States during the early years of the new republic. As for how the founders used Confucius to cultivate new private virtue for the Americans, you can read Dr. Dave Wang's article Confucius in the American Founding: The Founder's efforts to use Confucian Moral Philosophy in their Endeavor to Create New Virtue for the New Nation, in Virginia Review of Asian Studies, Volume 16 (2014): 11-26.